-Closed Reflux, Colorimetric Method (By SM 5220D)


Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is defined as the amount of a specified oxidant that reacts with the sample under controlled conditions. The quantity of oxidant consumed is expressed in terms of its oxygen equivalence. Because of its unique chemical properties, the dichromate ion is the specified oxidant in Methods
5220B, C, and D; it is reduced to the chromic ion (Cr3) in these tests. Both organic and inorganic components of a sample are subject to oxidation, but in most cases the organic component predominates and is of the greater interest. If it is desired to measure either organic or inorganic COD alone, additional steps not described here must be taken to distinguish one from the other. COD is a defined test; the extent of sample oxidation can be affected by digestion time, reagent strength, and sample COD concentration.

COD often is used as a measurement of pollutants in wastewater and natural waters. Other related analytical values are biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total organic carbon (TOC), and total oxygen demand (TOD). In many cases it is possible to correlate two or more of these values for a given sample. BOD is a measure of oxygen consumed by microorganisms under specific conditions; TOC is a measure of organic carbon in a sample; TOD is a measure of the amount of oxygen consumed by all elements in a sample when complete (total) oxidation is achieved.

-Standard Methods Online – Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater

Method Data

Method 5220D
Hold Time
Sample Volume
Method Refernce

Analyte List


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