Solids, Total

-Total Solids Dried at 103–105°C

Scope:

A well-mixed sample is evaporated in a weighed dish and dried to constant weight in an oven at 103 to 105°C. The increase in weight over that of the empty dish represents the total solids. The results may not represent the weight of actual dissolved and suspended solids in wastewater samples.

-Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater

Method Data

Method 2540 B
Hold Time
PreservationNo Preservation
Sample Volume250mL HDPE bottle
Collection MethodGrab sampling
InstrumentationGravimetry
Method RefernceSM 2540 B

 

Solids, Dissolved

-Total Dissolved Solids Dried at 180°C

Scope:

A well-mixed sample is filtered through a standard glass fiber filter, and the filtrate is evaporated to dryness in a weighed dish and dried to constant weight at 180°C. The increase in dish weight represents the total dissolved solids. This procedure may be used for drying at other temperatures. The results may not agree with the theoretical value for solids calculated from chemical analysis of sample (see above). Approximate methods for correlating chemical analysis with dissolved solids are available.1 The filtrate from the total suspended solids determination (Section 2540D) may be used for determination of total dissolved solids.

-Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater

Method Data

Method 2540 C
Hold Time
PreservationNo Preservation
Sample Volume250mL HDPE bottle
Collection MethodGrab sampling
InstrumentationGravimetry
Method RefernceSM 2540 C

 

Solids, Suspended

-Total Suspended Solids Dried at 103–105°C

Scope:

A well-mixed sample is filtered through a weighed standard glass-fiber filter and the residue retained on the filter is dried to a constant weight at 103 to 105°C. The increase in weight of the filter represents the total suspended solids. If the suspended material clogs the filter and prolongs filtration, it may be necessary to increase the diameter of the filter or decrease the sample volume. To obtain an estimate of total suspended solids, calculate the difference between total dissolved solids and total solids.

-Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater

Method Data

Method 2540 D
Hold Time
PreservationNo Preservation
Sample Volume250mL HDPE bottle
Collection MethodGrab sampling
InstrumentationGravimetry
Method RefernceSM 2540 D

 

Solids, Fixed and Volatile

-Fixed and Volatile Solids Ignited at 550°C

Scope:

The residue from Method B, C, or D is ignited to constant weight at 550°C. The remaining solids represent the fixed total, dissolved, or suspended solids while the weight lost on ignition is the volatile solids. The determination is useful in control of wastewater treatment plant operation because it offers a rough approximation of the amount of organic matter present in the solid fraction.

-Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater

Method Data

Method 2540 E
Hold Time
PreservationNo Preservation
Sample Volume250mL HDPE bottle
Collection MethodGrab sampling
InstrumentationGravimetry
Method RefernceSM 2540 E

 

Settable Solids

-By SM 2540F

Scope:

Solids refer to matter suspended or dissolved in potable, surface, and saline waters, as well as domestic and industrial wastewaters. Solids may adversely affect water or effluent quality in a number of ways. Solids analyses are important for controlling water and wastewater treatment processes and assessing compliance with regulatory requirements.

Settleable solids are the material in a sample that settles out of suspension within a defined period. This may include floating material, depending on the technique used.

-Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater

Method Data

Method 2540 E
Hold Time
PreservationNo Preservation
Sample Volume250mL HDPE bottle
Collection MethodGrab sampling
InstrumentationGravimetry
Method RefernceSM 2540 E

 

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